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    The following article is the second part of the "finding zero" series.

    First of all, let us recapitulate part one.

- Closed loop pumps null adjustment is important
- The easiest way to check correct null position is through comparing work-lines pressures with the machine stopped and brakes applied (alternatively - pump lines closed on a test rig)
- Closed loop pumps, that have proportional displacement feedback controls, have two "zeroing" systems - mechanical and hydraulic
- The best way to adjust these systems is one at a time - first mechanical, then hydraulic
- To eliminate influence of the hydraulic zero and adjust the mechanical zero you must by-pass the servo-cylinders
- Next time you ask your boss for a raise, blink an eye and casually remind him of the "boxter incident", then wish him good luck with his new sports car...(don't know what I'm talking about? Read part 1 of the series for a guaranteed raise!!!)
  
     Now - an imaginary example: You are asked to "take a look" at the closed loop propelled machine, that just can't stay put. First thing you do is check the type of pump and control, and find that it's electric proportional feedback displacement control. Then you either mount two pressure gauges in both sides of the loop and apply the parking brake, or lift the machine off the ground (I didn't mention this technique in the first part, but, despite all the work it might give, it is the safest way, as you can tweak the transmission all you like without the risk of passing over someone's foot). Then you install the by-pass valve in the servo-cylinder test ports using appropriate fittings. The machine is heated to a normal working temperature and is at high idle. You activate (open) the by-pass and adjust the mechanical zero by turning the adjusting screw till the wheels stop (pressures level out), then you turn the screw in one direction and notice its position when the wheels start to move, then you turn it in the opposite direction and again notice its position when the wheels start to rotate in the opposite direction, then you lock it in the middle position. Then you close the by-pass and make sure the control is getting no signal (or simply remove the control signal connector). Then you adjust the hydraulic zero, trying again to lock the adjustment in the middle of the deadband. Then you reconnect the signal wire and check if the null position remains unchanged after stroking the pump several times in both directions. And - you're done!

   If you can't imagine what a by-pass connection looks like take a look at this picture and this short video.

   OK then, now we know how to adjust correct null position of  hydrostatic transmission pumps equipped with proportional displacement controls, but so far we have been looking into pumps, that have only one mechanical null adjustment. In such designs, the mechanical freeplay of the pre-tensioned springs is next to none and is either adjusted during the assembly (like in this example, older A4V pumps) or isn't adjustable at all (example, newer models). Such servo-mechanisms, when assembled or machined correctly, have practically zero  freeplay to cause unstable null condition, and the spring pre-tension creates servo-pressure deadband, defining the minimum servo-pressure necessary to make the servo-cylinder and the swash-plate move. This condition is a guarantee that even when there are small servo-pressure fluctuations, caused by the hydraulic positioning system, the swashplate will remain in fixed position.

     However, there are servo-mechanisms, that use threaded servo-cylinders to position the servo-piston and the attached pre-tensioned springs. Such designs, when adjusted incorrectly, can allow for a certain swashplate freeplay. For example, in this type of servo-mechanism, or this (Sauer Danfoss H1 series), one can unscrew the servo-cylinders and the swashplate will no longer be held in place between the two pre-tensioned springs, becoming loose. The hydraulic null will still hold the swashplate in neutral position, but it will be far less stable (drifting null), especially if the hydraulic positioning system has wear, as there will be no servo-pressure deadband. Furthermore, incorrect position of the servo-pistons can cause incorrect displacement values, especially when the servo-pistons are too much in.

   
The correct servo-cylinder position for such systems is when both the cylinders are touching the pre-tensioned springs with the swashplate in neutral position. Neither too much in, nor too much out - just touching - zero freeplay, servo-pressure deadband defined by the springs pre-tension, ideal null conditions created - the only thing to adjust now would be the hydraulic null.

    Obviously, the best way to adjust the correct servo-piston position in such pumps is doing it during the assembly and may require special tools, but what if a mistake was made during the assembly, or, which is normally the case, someone had tampered with the adjustments? Using the by-pass technique will be useless, as the freeplay makes the hydraulic null system the only one responsible for positioning the swashplate, and even when we by-pass it, the swashplate still remains in neutral due to the centering forces of the rotary group - pistons acting on the swashplate keep it in neutral position.

        The following procedure is what I usually use in such cases. First of all, when I suspect that servo-cylinders were tampered with, I never know whether they were screwed in or screwed our, so I unscrew both of the servo-cylinders, leaving intentionally the servo-piston loose. Then I block the pump's outlets by closing the restrictor (on a test bench) or applying brakes (in the field). At this point the swash plate position is defined by the hydraulic null. Then, if the null is off-center (which I can see by the unequal lines pressures), I bring it back to center. Now the fun part begins, because people, who aren't familiar with this technique, get quite puzzled on seeing the adjustment procedure. The next thing I do is turn the hydraulic null adjustment in one direction to the point when it causes the pressure in one of the lines to rise slightly. Just a little bit, maybe 10 bars or so, only enough to make sure the swashplate is starting to tilt. When possible, it's useful to read servo-pressures at this point. The servo pressure differential created by the intentional off-center adjustment must be minimal. Then I screw-in the opposite to the slightly pressurized servo-cylinder till the loop sides' pressures level out and lock the cylinder in this position. The small servo-pressure differential guarantees that the pre-tensioned spring touches the servo-cylinder, but the pressure is not enough to compress the pre-tensioned spring, which means that I bring the swashplate to neutral by pushing on the pre-tensioned spring without compressing it and thus bring the servo-cylinder to the desired position - touching the servo-piston, with the swasplate in neutral position! Next - I do the same to the other side. (Actually, the other side is a little bit easier to adjust, as the swashplate is already in neutral, and one of the cylinders is locked in the correct position. All I have to do is to touch the servo-piston spring with the other cylinder, which is easy to feel - the moment it hits the pre-tensioned spring is indicated by the increase in torque). That's it! So very easy. Still in doubt? Check this diagram.

     If you do this once, you'll learn it for life. By the way - the necessary servo-pressure differential can alternatively be created by supplying the pump with a minimum input signal, which can easily be done at a test bench but, in most cases, is impossible to perform in the field.

     The most important thing is to understand how the above described technique works, rather than blindly follow the instructions.

      Well, that is it for this part. There's still a couple of worth mentioning closed loop null adjustment questions, which will be discussed in part 3, but even at this point I am dead certain that IH readers will never let their machinery "escape on its own!"